The biggest breakthrough however came in with the opening of Stockton and Darlington Railway. It was named locomotion and hauled an ton load of coal and flour 14 km in two hours , reaching a speed of 39 kilometres per hour on one stretch.
It also pulled the first passenger car, carrying the first passengers on a railway with George being the driver. Lifespan: December 8, — January 8, Nationality: American. Eli Whitney was born to a respectable farming family in Massachusetts , America. It is said Eli had an instinctive understanding of mechanisms.
After studying at Yale and failing in attempts at being a teacher, Whitney landed at Mulberry Grove plantation on invite of Catherine Greene. The cotton gin was a mechanical device that removed the seeds from cotton, a process that had previously been extremely labour intensive. He had managed to reduce the work of weeks into a few days making cotton growing highly profitable in America.
After perfecting his machine, Whitney secured a patent for his cotton gin in He and Miller went into business manufacturing and servicing the new gins. Apart from the cotton gin, Whitney developed the concept of mass production of interchangeable parts, which revolutionized the manufacturing industry in the United States. Lifespan: January 19, — March 15, Born in Charlton , England, Henry Bessemer would go on to become a highly successful inventor with a minimum of patents including movable dyes, screw extruder and embossed postage stamps.police-risk-management.com/order/track/vul-app-spia.php
However, he will always be remembered for his steelmaking process that would remain the most important technique for making steel for over a hundred years and due to which he is considered among the pioneers of the Industrial Revolution. Henry Bessemer was the son of Anthony Bessemer, an engineer and inventor, who had moved to Paris where he became a member of the French Academy of Science. The inventive ways of Henry Bessemer manifested themselves at a young age and his earliest innovations were focused on the family business of typography and printing.
During the Crimean War in the s, Henry Bessemer worked on the problem of manufacturing cheap steel for British Navy. Cannons were traditionally made of cast iron. However the material was proving unsuitable for use in the new, rifle-style guns that fired spinning balls. It created excess pressure causing them to explode. While working on a furnace, Bessemer discovered that hot air alone had converted the outsides of the iron pieces to steel. He redesigned his furnace so that it would force high-pressure air through the molten iron using special air pumps. As he refined his process, Bessemer found that his steel was lighter and easier to shape and that his process could produce far greater quantities.
Lifespan: April 27, — April 2, Samuel F. Morse was born in Massachusetts, U. After graduating from Yale in , Morse pursued a career in painting, studying art in Britain with several masters including Benjamin West.
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In , he returned to America and had to shift from his romantic style with large canvases to portraits for financial reasons. In , while returning from Europe, Morse met the inventor Charles Thomas Jackson , and the two got into a discussion about using electromagnetism to develop some kind of a communication system.
Several attempts at a similar communicating device were being made all around the world. German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss and physicist Wilhelm Weber built the first commercial electromagnetic telegraph in English inventors William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone managed to create a multi wire telegraph in In , after some years of financial troubles and with the valuable help of Leonard Gale and Alfred Vail , Samuel Morse made the first demonstration of his single wire telegraph which was far simpler, more efficient and easier to use that any of its competitors.
The Morse telegraphic apparatus was officially adopted as the standard for European telegraphy in and laid the foundations for future innovations of telephone, fax machine and Internet communications. Lifespan: June 14, — January 26, Nationality: German. Due to political and family circumstances, Otto left high school and worked as a salesman and then as a merchant selling tea, sugar and kitchenware. This was the first workable internal combustion engine and it was based on the same principal as the external steam engine.
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In , Otto along with his brother built a copy of the Lenoir engine basing it on liquid fuel and applied for a patent; but it was rejected. In , Otto was lucky to meet Eugen Langen, who was a technician himself and owner of a sugar factory. He agreed to invest in Otto and his engine. Together they formed a company named Otto and Cie to manufacture engines. The term Otto cycle is applied to all compressed charge, four cycle engines.
The four cycles are downward intake stroke — coal-gas and air enter the piston chamber; upward compression stroke — the piston compresses the mixture; downward power stroke — ignition of the fuel mixture by flame and later electric spark; and upward exhaust stroke — releases exhaust gas from the piston chamber. Lifespan: February 11, — October 18, Thomas Alva Edison was born in Ohio , America.
He dropped out of school after a few months and was taught majorly by his mother Nancy Edison , who had been a teacher. Aged 12, Edison sold fruit, snacks and newspapers on a train.
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He briefly worked as a telegraph operator in for the Grand Trunk Railway. In , Edison took out his first patent for the electric vote recorder which did not find any suitors. In , he built his most famous laboratory at Menlo Park , where he created several of his great innovations. He is thus credited for the creation of the first industrial research laboratory. These included the phonograph, alkaline battery, universal stock ticker, a battery for an electric car, recorded music, motion pictures and, not to forget , the incandescent light bulb.
His inventions had a major impact worldwide. Electric light and power utilities, sound recording and motion pictures all established major new industries across the world. They also contributed to mass communication and, in particular, telecommunications.
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Lifespan: July 10, — January 7, Nationality: Serbian-American. It is said that as a young boy he had a knack of making home crafting tools and mechanical appliances. He was particularly adept at solving mathematical problems and was hence sometimes accused of cheating by his teachers. Having achieved the feat, Tesla said he was then told that the offer had just been an American joke. In and , he was granted more than 30 patents for his inventions and he would eventually have more than of them. Throughout his career, Tesla discovered, designed and developed various ideas, many not patented by him like induction motors, radar s , x rays etc.
He made dozens of breakthroughs in the production, transmission and application of electric power. Nikola Tesla is now considered a brilliant and eccentric genius whose inventions enabled modern-day power and mass communication systems. Howard Peach. Born on a Blue Day.
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